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  • Following the conclusions of the review could result in harm to patients or populations of interest (other than known adverse effects).
  • There are factual errors in describing one or more included studies that risk misinforming implementation or investment decisions about an intervention.
  • The reported treatment effect is inconsistent with the real effect shown in the reported data.
  • Or when there is a confirmed serious error in a Cochrane Review as a direct result of the retraction of an included study; this could occur if studies included in a Cochrane Review are retracted from publication, and an analysis shows that the removal of the retracted studies from the analyses in the Cochrane Review could lead to a serious error (defined above).

The Editor in Chief must be notified of all suspected or confirmed serious errors. The Editor in Chief along with the Co-ordinating Editor of the Cochrane Review Group (CRG) that published the Cochrane Review and the Network Senior Editor will investigate and agree a course of action.